Discipline Disparities

Who's At Risk for Harsh and Exclusionary Discipline?

A student’s risk for engaging in troubling behavior and for involvement in the juvenile justice system increases significantly when a student is suspended or expelled. Data and research indicate that harsh and exclusionary disciplinary policies and practices have been applied disproportionately to members of specific demographic groups such as racial and ethnic minorities, males, and students with emotional, behavioral or cognitive disabilities. Read our discipline disparities reference guide to learn more.


Use the map below to visually explore which racial and ethnic minority groups are most likely to be subjected to harsh and exclusionary discipline at the national and state levels.


By StateNational